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How does rubber act as an electrical insulator?

An Electrical insulator can be made from wood, porcelain, glass and rubber and so on used for high voltage lines. How does rubber act as an electrical insulator?

electrical insulator

electrical insulator

The electrical behavior of many materials as to why some are good conductors, some are semiconductors and some others insulators, is now well explained on the basis of ‘Band Theory'.

It states that substances, in which molecules have only strong covalent (sigma) bonds or molecules with non-overlapping weak (pi) bonds, would have most of their electrons in the so-called, ‘valence band' of lower energy, leaving no electrons for the next higher energy band, ‘ conduction band', and that such materials would serve as electrical insulators.

Rubbers, plastics, glasses, dry wood, oils, etc are insulators on this count. Most of electrical insulators can be made of silicone rubber, also known as silicone rubber insulator.

Rubber has additional advantage of mechanical flexibility and can be drawn into shapes, such as gloves, bags, and other required forms of electrical insulators.

Silicone rubber materials are popular for electrical insulators, replacing the traditional insulators, sometimes they called polymer insulator.


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